Modules 13 – 17: Threats and Attacks Group Exam Answers

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CyberOps Associate (Version 1.0) – Modules 13 – 17: Threats and Attacks Group Exam

1. Which is an example of social engineering?

  • an unidentified person claiming to be a technician collecting user information from employees
  • the infection of a computer by a virus carried by a Trojan
  • an anonymous programmer directing a DDoS attack on a data center
  • a computer displaying unauthorized pop-ups and adware

2. What is a significant characteristic of virus malware?

  • A virus is triggered by an event on the host system.
  • Virus malware is only distributed over the Internet.
  • A virus can execute independently of the host system.
  • Once installed on a host system, a virus will automatically propagate itself to other systems.

3. Which access attack method involves a software program that attempts to discover a system password by the use of an electronic dictionary?

  • brute-force attack
  • IP spoofing attack
  • denial of service attack
  • port redirection attack
  • buffer overflow attack
  • packet sniffer attack

4. Which statement describes an operational characteristic of NetFlow?

  • NetFlow collects basic information about the packet flow, not the flow data itself.
  • NetFlow captures the entire contents of a packet.
  • NetFlow flow records can be viewed by the tcpdump tool.
  • NetFlow can provide services for user access control.
Explanation: NetFlow does not capture the entire contents of a packet. Instead, NetFlow collects metadata, or data about the flow, not the flow data itself. NetFlow information can be viewed with tools such as nfdump and FlowViewer.

5. Match the network monitoring solution with a description. (Not all options are used.)

6. Which technology is a proprietary SIEM system?

  • StealthWatch
  • NetFlow collector
  • SNMP agent
  • Splunk
Explanation: Security Information Event Management (SIEM) is a technology that is used in enterprise organizations to provide real-time reporting and long-term analysis of security events. Splunk is a proprietary SIEM system.

7. What are three functionalities provided by SOAR? (Choose three.)

  • It automates complex incident response procedures and investigations.
  • It provides 24×7 statistics on packets that flow through a Cisco router or multilayer switch.
  • It uses artificial intelligence to detect incidents and aid in incident analysis and response.
  • It presents the correlated and aggregated event data in real-time monitoring and long-term summaries.
  • It provides a complete audit trail of basic information about every IP flow forwarded on a device.
  • It provides case management tools that allow cybersecurity personnel to research and investigate incidents.

8. Which devices should be secured to mitigate against MAC address spoofing attacks?

  • Layer 7 devices
  • Layer 4 devices
  • Layer 3 devices
  • Layer 2 devices
Explanation: Layer 2 attacks such as MAC address spoofing can be mitigated by securing Layer 2 devices.

9. A network administrator is checking the system logs and notices unusual connectivity tests to multiple well-known ports on a server. What kind of potential network attack could this indicate?

  • access
  • denial of service
  • information theft
  • reconnaissance
Explanation: A reconnaissance attack is the unauthorized discovery and mapping of systems, services, or vulnerabilities. One of the most common reconnaissance attacks is performed by using utilities that automatically discover hosts on the networks and determine which ports are currently listening for connections.

10. What is a vulnerability that allows criminals to inject scripts into web pages viewed by users?

  • Cross-site scripting
  • XML injection
  • buffer overflow
  • SQL injection
Explanation: Cross-site scripting (XSS) allows criminals to inject scripts that contain malicious code into web applications.

11. Why would a rootkit be used by a hacker?

  • to try to guess a password
  • to reverse engineer binary files
  • to gain access to a device without being detected
  • to do reconnaissance
Explanation: Hackers use rootkits to avoid detection as well as hide any software installed by the hacker.

12. What causes a buffer overflow?

  • sending too much information to two or more interfaces of the same device, thereby causing dropped packets
  • attempting to write more data to a memory location than that location can hold
  • sending repeated connections such as Telnet to a particular device, thus denying other data sources
  • downloading and installing too many software updates at one time
  • launching a security countermeasure to mitigate a Trojan horse
Explanation: By sending too much data to a specific area of memory, adjacent memory locations are overwritten, which causes a security issue because the program in the overwritten memory location is affected.

13. Which type of security threat would be responsible if a spreadsheet add-on disables the local software firewall?

  • DoS
  • Trojan horse
  • buffer overflow
  • brute-force attack

14. Which two types of hackers are typically classified as grey hat hackers? (Choose two.)

  • hacktivists
  • cyber criminals
  • vulnerability brokers
  • script kiddies
  • state-sponsored hackers

15. A white hat hacker is using a security tool called Skipfish to discover the vulnerabilities of a computer system. What type of tool is this?

  • debugger
  • fuzzer
  • vulnerability scanner
  • packet sniffer
Explanation: Fuzzers are tools used by threat actors when attempting to discover the vulnerabilities of a computer system. Examples of fuzzers include Skipfish, Wapiti, and W3af.

16. Which two functions are provided by NetFlow? (Choose two.)

  • It uses artificial intelligence to detect incidents and aid in incident analysis and response.
  • It provides a complete audit trail of basic information about every IP flow forwarded on a device.
  • It provides 24×7 statistics on packets that flow through a Cisco router or multilayer switch.
  • It allows an administrator to capture real-time network traffic and analyze the entire contents of packets.
  • It presents correlated and aggregated event data in real-time monitoring and long-term summaries.
Explanation: NetFlow is a Cisco IOS technology that provides statistics and complete audit trails on TCP/IP flows on the network. Some of the capabilities of NetFlow include the following: 24×7 network and security monitoring, network planning, traffic analysis, identification of network bottlenecks, and IP accounting for billing purposes.

17. Which statement describes the function of the SPAN tool used in a Cisco switch?

  • It is a secure channel for a switch to send logging to a syslog server.
  • It provides interconnection between VLANs over multiple switches.
  • It supports the SNMP trap operation on a switch.
  • It copies the traffic from one switch port and sends it to another switch port that is connected to a monitoring device.

18. What are two evasion methods used by hackers? (Choose two.)

  • scanning
  • access attack
  • resource exhaustion
  • phishing
  • encryption

19. Which attack involves threat actors positioning themselves between a source and destination with the intent of transparently monitoring, capturing, and controlling the communication?

  • man-in-the-middle attack
  • DoS attack
  • ICMP attack
  • SYN flood attack

20. What is the goal of a white hat hacker?

  • validating data
  • modifying data
  • stealing data
  • protecting data
Explanation: White hat hackers are actually “good guys” and are paid by companies and governments to test for security vulnerabilities so that data is better protected.

21. Once a cyber threat has been verified, the US Cybersecurity Infrastructure and Security Agency (CISA) automatically shares the cybersecurity information with public and private organizations. What is this automated system called?

  • AIS
  • NCSA
Explanation: Governments are now actively promoting cybersecurity. For instance, the US Cybersecurity Infrastructure and Security Agency (CISA) is leading efforts to automate the sharing of cybersecurity information with public and private organizations at no cost. CISA use a system called Automated Indicator Sharing (AIS). AIS enables the sharing of attack indicators between the US government and the private sector as soon as threats are verified. CISA offers many resources that help to limit the size of the United States attack surface.

22. A user receives a phone call from a person who claims to represent IT services and then asks that user for confirmation of username and password for auditing purposes. Which security threat does this phone call represent?

  • spam
  • anonymous keylogging
  • DDoS
  • social engineering

23. Which two characteristics describe a worm? (Chose two)

  • is self-replicating
  • travels to new computers without any intervention or knowledge of the user
  • infects computers by attaching to software code
  • hides in a dormant state until needed by an attacker
  • executes when software is run on a computer
Explanation: Worms are self-replicating pieces of software that consume bandwidth on a network as they propagate from system to system. They do not require a host application, unlike a virus. Viruses, on the other hand, carry executable malicious code which harms the target machine on which they reside.

24. What kind of ICMP message can be used by threat actors to create a man-in-the-middle attack?

  • ICMP echo request
  • ICMP unreachable
  • ICMP redirects
  • ICMP mask reply
Explanation:Common ICMP messages of interest to threat actors include the following:
ICMP echo request and echo reply: used to perform host verification and DoS attacks
ICMP unreachable: used to perform network reconnaissance and scanning attacks
ICMP mask reply: used to map an internal IP network
ICMP redirects: used to lure a target host into sending all traffic through a compromised device and create a man-in-the-middle attack
ICMP router discovery: used to inject bogus route entries into the routing table of a target host

25. What are two purposes of launching a reconnaissance attack on a network? (Choose two.)

  • to escalate access privileges
  • to prevent other users from accessing the system
  • to scan for accessibility
  • to gather information about the network and devices
  • to retrieve and modify data
Explanation: Gathering information about a network and scanning for access is a reconnaissance attack. Preventing other users from accessing a system is a denial of service attack. Attempting to retrieve and modify data, and attempting to escalate access privileges are types of access attacks.

26. Which type of network attack involves randomly opening many Telnet requests to a router and results in a valid network administrator not being able to access the device?

  • DNS poisoning
  • man-in-the-middle
  • SYN flooding
  • spoofing
Explanation: The TCP SYN Flood attack exploits the TCP three-way handshake. The threat actor continually sends TCP SYN session request packets with a randomly spoofed source IP address to an intended target. The target device replies with a TCP SYN-ACK packet to the spoofed IP address and waits for a TCP ACK packet. Those responses never arrive. Eventually the target host is overwhelmed with half-open TCP connections and denies TCP services.

27. What functionality is provided by Cisco SPAN in a switched network?

  • It mirrors traffic that passes through a switch port or VLAN to another port for traffic analysis.
  • It prevents traffic on a LAN from being disrupted by a broadcast storm.
  • It protects the switched network from receiving BPDUs on ports that should not be receiving them.
  • It copies traffic that passes through a switch interface and sends the data directly to a syslog or SNMP server for analysis.
  • It inspects voice protocols to ensure that SIP, SCCP, H.323, and MGCP requests conform to voice standards.
  • It mitigates MAC address overflow attacks.
Explanation: SPAN is a Cisco technology used by network administrators to monitor suspicious traffic or to capture traffic to be analyzed.

28. An attacker is redirecting traffic to a false default gateway in an attempt to intercept the data traffic of a switched network. What type of attack could achieve this?

  • MAC address snoopin
  • DHCP snooping
  • MAC address starvation
  • DHCP spoofing

29. What would be the target of an SQL injection attack?

  • DHCP
  • DNS
  • email
  • database
Explanation: SQL is the language used to query a relational database. Cybercriminals use SQL injections to get information, create fake or malicious queries, or to breach the database in some other way.

30. The IT department is reporting that a company web server is receiving an abnormally high number of web page requests from different locations simultaneously. Which type of security attack is occurring?

  • social engineering
  • adware
  • DDoS
  • phishing
  • spyware
Explanation: Phishing, spyware, and social engineering are security attacks that collect network and user information. Adware consists, typically, of annoying popup windows. Unlike a DDoS attack, none of these attacks generate large amounts of data traffic that can restrict access to network services.

31. Why would an attacker want to spoof a MAC address?

  • so that the attacker can capture traffic from multiple VLANs rather than from just the VLAN that is assigned to the port to which the attacker device is attached
  • so that a switch on the LAN will start forwarding frames to the attacker instead of to the legitimate host
  • so that a switch on the LAN will start forwarding all frames toward the device that is under control of the attacker (that can then capture the LAN traffic)
  • so that the attacker can launch another type of attack in order to gain access to the switch
Explanation: MAC address spoofing is used to bypass security measures by allowing an attacker to impersonate a legitimate host device, usually for the purpose of collecting network traffic.

32. Match the security concept to the description.

33. What is the significant characteristic of worm malware?

  • Worm malware disguises itself as legitimate software.
  • Once installed on a host system, a worm does not replicate itself.
  • A worm must be triggered by an event on the host system.
  • A worm can execute independently of the host system.

34. What are the three major components of a worm attack? (Choose three.)

  • a payload
  • a propagation mechanism
  • an infecting vulnerability
  • a probing mechanism
  • an enabling vulnerability
  • a penetration mechanism

35. A user is curious about how someone might know a computer has been infected with malware. What are two common malware behaviors? (Choose two.)

  • The computer emits a hissing sound every time the pencil sharpener is used.
  • The computer beeps once during the boot process.
  • The computer gets increasingly slower to respond.
  • No sound emits when an audio CD is played.
  • The computer freezes and requires reboots.
Explanation: Common symptoms of computers infected with malware:
Appearance of files, applications, or desktop icons
Security tools such as antivirus software or firewalls turned off or changed
System crashes
Emails spontaneously sent to others
Modified or missing files
Slow system or browser response
Unfamiliar processes or services running
Unknown TCP or UDP ports open
Connections made to unknown remote devices

36. Which two types of attacks are examples of reconnaissance attacks? (Choose two.)

  • brute force
  • port scan
  • ping sweep
  • man-in-the-middle
  • SYN flood

37. An administrator discovers a vulnerability in the network. On analysis of the vulnerability the administrator decides the cost of managing the risk outweighs the cost of the risk itself. The risk is accepted, and no action is taken. What risk management strategy has been adopted?

  • risk transfer
  • risk acceptance
  • risk reduction
  • risk avoidance

38. Which protocol is exploited by cybercriminals who create malicious iFrames?

  • HTTP
  • DNS
  • ARP
  • DHCP
Explanation: An HTML element known as an inline frame or iFrame allows the browser to load a different web page from another source.

39. How can a DNS tunneling attack be mitigated?

  • by preventing devices from using gratuitous ARP
  • by using a filter that inspects DNS traffic
  • by securing all domain owner accounts
  • by using strong passwords and two-factor authentication
Explanation: To be able to stop DNS tunneling, a filter that inspects DNS traffic must be used. Also, DNS solutions such as Cisco OpenDNS block much of the DNS tunneling traffic by identifying suspicious domains.

40. What is the function of a gratuitous ARP sent by a networked device when it boots up?

  • to request the netbios name of the connected system
  • to request the MAC address of the DNS server
  • to request the IP address of the connected network
  • to advise connected devices of its MAC address
Explanation: A gratuitous ARP is often sent when a device first boots up to inform all other devices on the local network of the MAC address of the new device.

41. What is the result of a passive ARP poisoning attack?

  • Data is modified in transit or malicious data is inserted in transit.
  • Network clients experience a denial of service.
  • Confidential information is stolen.
  • Multiple subdomains are created.
Explanation: ARP poisoning attacks can be passive or active. The result of a passive attack is that cybercriminals steal confidential information. With an active attack, cybercriminals modify data in transit or they inject malicious data.

42. What are two methods used by cybercriminals to mask DNS attacks? (Choose two.)

  • reflection
  • shadowing
  • domain generation algorithms
  • fast flux
  • tunneling

43. Match the security tool with the description. (Not all options apply.)

44. Match the type of cyberattackers to the description. (Not all options are used.)

45. Match the threat actors with the descriptions. (Not all options are used.)

  • hacktivists : threat actors that publicly protest against organizations or governments by posting articles, videos, leaking sensitive information, and performing distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks
  • script kiddies : inexperienced threat actors running existing scripts, tools, and exploits, to cause harm, but typically not for profit
  • State-sponsored : threat actors who steal government secrets, gather intelligence, and sabotage networks of foreign governments, terrorist groups, and corporations

46. What scenario describes a vulnerability broker?

  • a teenager running existing scripts, tools, and exploits, to cause harm, but typically not for profit
  • a threat actor attempting to discover exploits and report them to vendors, sometimes for prizes or rewards
  • a threat actor publicly protesting against governments by posting articles and leaking sensitive information
  • a State-Sponsored threat actor who steals government secrets and sabotages networks of foreign governments
Explanation: Vulnerability brokers typically refers to grey hat hackers who attempt to discover exploits and report them to vendors, sometimes for prizes or rewards.

47. In what type of attack is a cybercriminal attempting to prevent legitimate users from accessing network services?

  • DoS
  • session hijacking
  • MITM
  • address spoofing

16. Which field in the IPv6 header points to optional network layer information that is carried in the IPv6 packet?

  • traffic class
  • version
  • flow label
  • next header
Explanation: Optional Layer 3 information about fragmentation, security, and mobility is carried inside of extension headers in an IPv6 packet. The next header field of the IPv6 header acts as a pointer to these optional extension headers if they are present.

48. Which type of attack is carried out by threat actors against a network to determine which IP addresses, protocols, and ports are allowed by ACLs?

  • social engineering
  • denial of service
  • phishing
  • reconnaissance
Explanation: Packet filtering ACLs use rules to filter incoming and outgoing traffic. These rules are defined by specifying IP addresses, port numbers, and protocols to be matched. Threat actors can use a reconnaissance attack involving port scanning or penetration testing to determine which IP addresses, protocols, and ports are allowed by ACLs.

49. Which cyber attack involves a coordinated attack from a botnet of zombie computers?

  • ICMP redirect
  • MITM
  • DDoS
  • address spoofing
Explanation: DDoS is a distributed denial-of-services attack. A DDoS attack is launched from multiple coordinated sources. The sources of the attack are zombie hosts that the cybercriminal has built into a botnet. When ready, the cybercriminal instructs the botnet of zombies to attack the chosen target.

50. What technique is a security attack that depletes the pool of IP addresses available for legitimate hosts?

  • reconnaissance attack
  • DHCP starvation
  • DHCP spoofing
  • DHCP snooping

51 Which type of Trojan horse security breach uses the computer of the victim as the source device to launch other attacks?

  • proxy
  • FTP
  • DoS
  • data-sending
Explanation: The attacker uses a proxy Trojan horse attack to penetrate one device and then use that device to launch attacks on other devices. The Dos Trojan horse slows or halts network traffic. The FTP trojan horse enables unauthorized file transfer services when port 21 has been compromised. A data-sending Trojan horse transmits data back to the hacker that could include passwords.

52. What are two examples of DoS attacks? (Choose two.)

  • buffer overflow
  • SQL injection
  • port scanning
  • phishing
  • ping of death
Explanation: The buffer overflow and ping of death DoS attacks exploit system memory-related flaws on a server by sending an unexpected amount of data or malformed data to the server.

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